Desmond Paul Henry 1921 - 2004

Curator: Elaine O'Hanrahan

Contact email: see Linkedin

British Pioneer of Computer Art | Manchester's 1960's Precursor to Digital Art.

A collection of rare archive items

Desmond Paul Henry - Archive

Desmond Paul Henry - Archive

The machine in action

"The computer, which hums a drowsy dirge to itself while working, is only a fraction of the size of the giant Atlas computer at the University (of Manchester). The Ideograph analogue computer is a mere two feet square and consists of a host of dials, springs, coils, gears, small electric motors and little flashing lights.

Dr. Henry keeps the computer in front of his desk in the bay window of his book-lined study. The computer draws with three individually suspended spring-loaded ball-point pens filled with colored inks which it wields in its shiny chrome hand. The paper or card on which the drawing is done is attached to an easel which can move in a horizontal plane at the same time as the computer's hand is drawing on it."

(The Manchester Guardian, 1962)

Drawing Machine Number3

Drawing Machine Number3

Four newspaper articles featuring the artist.

Below is a collection of four press cuttings taken from various British newspapers.
Each example opens in Lightbox for you to view.

Rare Interview with Desmond Paul Henry

In the last few years before Desmond Paul Henry passed away in 2004 Elaine O'hanrahan interviewed the artist. Featured below are a selection of sound files capturing that day. Hear him talk about his life, passions and his art.

British Computer Art Pioneer

Exhibitions: Desmond Paul Henry (1921-2004)


Five Henry pictures exhibited in Los Angeles

Henry has had five of his pictures included in a major exhibition entitled:
"Coded: Art enters the Computer Age, 1952-1982"
Dates: Feb 12-July 2nd 2023
Venue: LACMA: Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Curator: Leslie Jones

The exhibition catalogue gives a very comprehensive account of movements and artists during this period.


Ex-Machina auction exhibition and sale
A Henry machine-picture was included in the following exhibition:

"Ex-Machina:A History of Generative Art"
Date: July 13-20, 2022
Venue: Phillips Auction House
30, Berkeley Square,
London, W1J 6EX

Exhibition curator: Georg Bak


September 11 to 19, 2021: pop-up Henry art exhibition in Chorlton, Manchester as part of the Chorlton Arts Festival.
Passers-by in Chorlton Precinct were able to read banner stands and an information leaflet describing Henry's 1960's generative art.
Elaine and Sean O'Hanrahan were able to interact with the public as they leafed through more than 50 original Henry pictures in display folders.
The response was overwhelmingly positive.


Summer 2021: Henry works included in the RCM Galerie's exhibition: Summer works on paper: from digital to analog


Thanks to the Kate Vass Galerie, one Henry picture included in a virtual exhibition called Telephone Paintings at the New York Artbook fair
and Elektra Montreal Showcase of Digital Creation (March 29-April 1st 2021)

July to October 2021 "Telephone Paintings" was exhibited at Anteism Books, Montreal, Canada.


April 30, 2021, two Henry pictures included in the exhibition Saint Somebody
Venue: New Digital Art Space in the Santa Fe Railyard Art Vault at the Thoma Foundation, Santa Fe, U.S.A. Artists include José Armijo, Dara Birnbaum,
Nancy Burson, R. Luke DuBois,Carla Gannis, Jean-Pierre Hébert, Desmond Paul Henry, Jason Salavon, Cauleen Smith, Anne Spalter, Bill Viola, Saya Woolfalk,
and an unidentified artist from 18th-century Cuzco, Peru.


December 2019, some Henry pictures exhibited at CADAF (Contemporary and Digital Art Fair) Miami courtesy of Kate Vass Galerie, Zurich.


Oct 2019 to Jan 2020: Chance and Control: Art in the age of Computers. Picture by Henry included. An exhibition created by the V&A touring the nation.
Venue: Firstsite, Colchester.


Automat und Mensch, May 29th- October 15th, 2019, Kate Vass Galerie, Zurich, Switzerland.

Participating artists:
Herbert W. Franke, Gottfried Jäger, Desmond Paul Henry, Nicolas Schöffer, Manfred Mohr, Vera Molnàr, Frieder Nake, Georg Nees,
Harold Cohen, Roman Verostko, Gottfried Honegger, Cornelia Sollfrank, John Maeda, Casey Reas, Jared Tarbell, Kevin Abosch, Memo Akten, Mario Klingemann,
Benjamin Heidersberger, Alexander Mordvintsev, Manolo Gamboa Naon, Helena Sarin, David Young, Anna Ridler, Tom White, Sofia Crespo,
Matt Hall & John Watkinson, Primavera de Filippi, Robbie Barrat & Harm van den Dorpel


Chance and Control: Art in the Age of Computers, June 7th- September 8th, 2019, The Old Library, Northgate St., Chester CH1, 2EF, UK.

This exhibition was originally shown at the V&A and is its first stop on its UK tour outside London. It features key artworks from
the pioneers of digital art from over the last fifty years, including Desmond Paul Henry.


Pioneers of Computer Art, II, June 20th- 31stJuly, 2019, RCM Galerie, Paris, France.

Participating artists: Colette Banger, Aldo Giorgini, Desmond Paul Henry, Jean-Pierre Hébert, Hervé Huitric, Ken Knowlton,
Charles Mattox, Manfred Mohr, Monique Nahas, Jacques Palumbo, Edward Zajec.


Event Two, 12th - 17th July 2019, Royal College of Art, Kensington campus, London.

This is an exhibition of historical and contemporary digital art and a programme of events marking the 50th anniversary
of the landmark Computer Arts Society Event One exhibition at the college in 1969. Desmond Paul Henry is exhibited alongside Jack Tait, who created his Homage to Henry drawing machine a few years ago, using reverse engineering techniques.


Two Henry artworks to be included in “Binary / Non-Binary“ from Nov. 5th 2018.
Venue: a private apartment in Paris, during the art fair Paris Photo.


V&A, London

Chance and Control: Art in the Age of Computers
Celebrating more than 50 years of computer-generated art
July to Nov. 18th. 2018.

Venue: Paintings, Room 88a The Edwin and Susan Davies Gallery and Room 90, The Julie and Robert Breckman Prints and Drawings Gallery.



The Computer Arts Society was established in the UK in 1968 by George Mallen, Alan Sutcliffe and John Lansdown and pioneered the development of computer arts in the UK and worldwide.

The first exhibition: 23rd May until 13th June 2018. This exhibition, like the ones that follow,
feature work by Stephen Bell, Peter Beyls, Desmond Henry, Ernest Edmonds, Sean Clark, Paul Brown, William Latham,
boredomresearch, Sue Gollifer, Stephen Scrivener, Daniel Brown and Andy Lomas.
Venue: LCB Depot, Leicester, LE1 1RE

Second exhibition: EVA ’18 conference: 9th- 13th July 2018.
Venue: British Computer Society, London.

Third exhibition: Brighton Digital Festival, Sept. 19th- 23rd. 2018
Venue: The Phoenix, Brighton.

2015 (Dec)

Computer Drawing Exhibition: DP Henry and Beyond: The Phoenix Café Bar (11 original Henry drawings) and LCB Depot LightBox
(three drawings by each artist: DP Henry, Patrick Tresset, Jack Tait, Damon Roberts, Esther Rolinson and Damien Borowik)
Exhibition curator: Sean Clark of Interact Digital Arts, The Phoenix, Leicester.

2015 (July)

Starting July 24th. five drawings by Desmond Paul Henry will be featured in a group exhibition Luminous Flux v2.0 at Art House in Santa Fe, USA.
The exhibition contains digital, electroluminescent, algorithmic and interactive art from the Carl and Marilynn Thoma Art Foundation’s collection. Henry’s works will be exhibited alongside works by: Jim Campbell, Craig Dorety, Sabrina Gschwandtner, Jean-Pierre Hébert, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Manfred Mohr, Alan Rath, Peter Sarkisian, Björn Schülke, John F. Simon, Jr., Anne Morgan Spalter, Siebren Versteeg and Leo Villareal.

2015 (June)

Starting June 27th at the Brattleboro Museum & Art Center, Vermont (USA), Art + Computer/Time (i.e., art plus computer over time) presents computer-generated
artwork from the Anne and Michael Spalter Digital Art Collection. Fifteen of the most important early practitioners of digital art are represented in the exhibit,
including Desmond Paul Henry. Seven recent digital videos by Leslie Thornton and Anne Morgan Spalter are also shown, including their new collaboration,
“Digging in the Water.”

Presently comprising more than 1,000 works collected over the past twenty years and encompassing works from 1954 to the present, the Spalter Collection
is one of the most comprehensive bodies of early computer art in the world.

2014 (April)

A-EYE, Goldsmiths, University of London, April 2014. An original Henry was exhibited at this exhibition which ran concurrently with the AISB-50 symposium.


Digital Art (R)evolution (2013), Dédée Shattuck Gallery, Westport, MA, USA. Original Henrys from the Anne and Michael Spalter Collection were exhibited
alongside other renowned pioneers of digital art.

2012 (Oct)

blincdigital, Conwy, North Wales. Six Desmond Paul Henry originals were exhibited, alongside a selection of Henry images which were also screened. Henry’s links with his former Manchester University colleague, Alan Turing, were also highlighted at the exhibition.

2011 (Feb - May)

Desmond Paul Henry: Manchester Pioneer of Computer Art, MOSI, Manchester, UK. This SOLO exhibition was held at the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester and is referenced by the New York Times and the BBC.

2011 (Jan)

Drawing with Code, DeCordova Sculpture Park and Museum Lincoln, MA, USA. Henry originals from the Anne and Michael Spalter Collection were included in the exhibition:. This exhibition provided a window into the past with some of the best examples of fruitful collaboration between technology and art.

2010 (March - April)

Atrocity Exhibition, Feinkost Gallery, Berlin,(6/3/2010 to 20/04/2010). Two Henry originals were requested by gallery curator Aaron Moulton for inclusion in this exhibition in homage to J. G. Ballard.

2010 (Feb)

Kinetica Art Fair, University of Westminster, London. Four Henry originals were exhibited in the Cybernetic Serendipity feature section of this exhibition. Daughter Elaine O'Hanrahan gave a talk on her father's work as an early British Computer Art pioneer.

2009 - 2010 (Feb - June)

Digital Pioneers, Senior Curator Doug Dodds kindly included at very short notice a D.P. Henry picture from the V & A collections archive.

1976 (Dec)

North West Artists, Manchester Evening News premises. Henry exhibited drawings produced by Drawing Machine Three.

1969 (Aug)

Cybernetic Serendipity on tour in the U.S.A. Venues included the Corcoran Gallery, Washington D.C and the Exploratorium, San Francisco. Henry’s Drawing Machine Two went on tour with this exhibition from which it returned completely damaged circa 1972.

1968 (Aug - Oct)

Cybernetic Serendipity, I.C.A, London. Drawing Machine Two together with its machine-generated images were exhibited at this major Computer Art show of the 1960’s.

1965 (July)

Frape Memorial Exhibition, Salford Art gallery. Henry exhibited a selection of pictures, together with other artists including L.S. Lowry, in memory of Mr. A. Frape, the former director of Salford Art Gallery who died in Nov. 1963.

1965 (Feb)

A performance of creative dance based around the stimuli of Henry’s ‘computer-drawn’ pictures was held at the Mather College, Manchester.

1964 (Oct)

One-man show of machine-produced drawings at Central Library, Manchester.

1962 (Oct)

Crumpsall Library: one-man exhibition of machine-drawings.

1962 (Sept)

Machine Drawings, Salford Art Gallery. This solo exhibition was claimed by Henry to be ‘the world’s first one-machine show’.

1962 (Sept)

Ideographs, The Reid Gallery, London’s West End. This exhibition was Henry’s one-man prize-show for winning the London Opportunity competition. Here Henry exhibited watercolours, graphics on photo-paper and for the first time, “machine-drawings”.

1961 (July-Aug)

London Opportunity, Salford Art Gallery. This was a local art competition for artists living within a 50 mile radius of Salford. Henry became the winner of this art competition with a picture which used, as its first stage for inspiration, effects produced using Henry’s unique photochemical technique. One of the judges for the prize was artist L.S. Lowry, who visited Henry’s home and on seeing his first drawing machine suggested he include ‘machine-drawings’ in his competition prize, a one-man show in London..

1955 (Sept)

Artists with North Country Associations, Manchester City Art Gallery. Here Henry exhibited an ink drawing.


Staff art shows, Manchester University. Pictures exhibited while a lecturer and reader in Philosophy.


Student art shows, Leeds University. Drawings exhibited while a student.

Desmond Paul Henry in the Media


The London Science Museum has photographed and catalogued the remains of Henry's Drawing Machine 2
This machine was un-operational and the only machine still in existence.

Henry appears in the exhibition catalogue:
"Coded: Art enters the Computer Age, 1952-1982"LACMA

International and interdisciplinary in scope, Coded examines the origins of what we now call digital art, featuring artists, writers, musicians,
choreographers, and filmmakers working directly with computers as well as those using algorithms and other systems to produce their work.


On Nov 16, 2022, Elaine O'Hanrahan (DP Henry's daughter) was interviewed, together with
Caroline Csuri (Chuck Csuri's daughter) by Alex Estorick and Doug Dodds
in the company of curator Leslie Jones.
Read the interview here:

Our thanks go to Michael Spalter for suggesting this interview.

Watch these two great videos of Henry's pictures, compiled by the Kate Vass Galerie in Zurich:

machine pollocks

Generative art and Henry


November 2019 issue of the magazine Artforum included a picture by Desmond Henry.


Crowther, Paul (2018) Digital Art, Aesthetic Creation: the birth of a medium, Routledge, pp.20-35.
Professor Crowther uses a philosophical approach to argue that art created by computers is really art. He dedicates the first chapter of this publication to Desmond Paul Henry. This represents the first in depth evaluation of Henry’s contribution to Computer Art.
“Henry remains a visionary independent who anticipates the ubiquity of technological being in the Postmodernism age.” (Crowther, 2018, p.35)

Elaine O'Hanrahan's article The Contribution of Desmond Paul Henry (1921-2004) to Twentieth Century Computer Art is published in the Art and Technology Journal Leonardo (Volume 51, Issue 2, April 1st 2018 MIT Publication).


June 2017: Serendipity Symposium, Strawberry Hill, London 15/06/2017.
AISB Members Workshop VIII: Serendipity Symposium

This one-day symposium on the theme of ‘serendipity’ was a first attempt to gather the world’s
leading ‘serendiptologists’ in one room. As such, this event brought together researchers in computing, the arts, sciences, and other fields of cultural endeavour. To mark the historic nature of this
occasion the event was held in the Waldegrave Drawing Room at St Mary’s
University, adjacent to Strawberry Hill House, the gothic castle in
Twickenham built by Horace Walpole, who invented the concept of
‘serendipity’ in 1754. A most interesting tour of Strawberry Hill House was included
in the programme.

Elaine O’Hanrahan’s contribution was entitled: The role of chance in the machine-generated art of Computer Art pioneer, Desmond Paul Henry (1921-2004)


In May, Elaine’s manuscript for an article on Henry’s contribution to computer art was accepted by the renowned Art and Technology magazine, Leonardo.
The article will appear in a 2016 issue of the magazine.


O’Hanrahan, Elaine (April 2014), AISB-50 symposium, Goldsmiths, London, delivered a paper entitled: Artistic intuition meets technical ingenuity:
the unique contribution to Digital Art History of 1960’s computer art pioneer, Desmond Paul Henry (1921-2004).

Paul, Gill and Roberts, Andrew, (2014) World War II Love Stories: At a Time of Global Conflict and Upheaval,
the True Stories of 14 Couples Who Found Love, Ivy Press. The amazing story of how Henry met and married his Belgian wife, Louisa Bayen,
following his participation in the Normandy Landings of 1944.

Jones, Daniel, (Feb. 2014), ‘Art and Algorithm’, (online).

Feb. 2014: watch Elaine give a talk on her father’s work at the Phoenix, Leicester


May 2013: Permission was granted to Dr. Melissa Langdon (Schools of Arts and Sciences, University of Notre Dame) to publish an image of Henry’s (no. 003, 1962)
in a forthcoming text on globalization and digital art (Springer 2013). The image is used in the context of discussing the emergence of digital art,
and early forms of creative expression.

Owens, Susan (2013) The Art of Drawing: British Masters and Methods since 1600,V & A Publishing, London, p. 185.

Henry picture to be included in an educational book on the Arts for the 9th Grade, by ICONOGRAFIA,
Oxford University Press, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Henry is referred to as a Computer Art Pioneer.

Ricardo, Francisco J. (2013) The Engagement Aesthetic: Experiencing New Media Art through Critique, International Texts in Critical Media Aesthetics,
Bloomsbury Academic, New York, pp.62-63. About the Author: Francisco J. Ricardo, Ph.D., writes about contemporary and new media art theory and criticism.
Affiliated with the University Professors of Boston University, he is co-founder of the Digital Video Research Archive,
and also teaches digital media theory at the Rhode Island School of Design.



Henry at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London: ‘Computer Art: technology and terminology’ [online] Available at: (Accessed: 28/02/2013)

Henry at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London: ‘V&A Search the Collections’ [online] Available at: (Accessed: 28/02/2013)


blincdigital, [exh.] Conwy (Nov. 2012)

Henry cited in: Beck, Paul (2012) Make Amazing Spiral Art, Sterling Innovation, New York, p.19 (Description and image of Henry’s Drawing Machine One).

Henry illustration in: Breward C. and Wood G.( eds.) (2012) British Design from 1948: Innovation in the Modern Age. London: V&A, p.362 (Full-page Henry illustration).



O'Hanrahan, Elaine ( Sept. 2011) ‘Desmond Paul Henry: Computer Art's 'missing link'’, (academic paper) REWIRE, the Fourth International Conference on Media Histories, Science and Technology held at Liverpool John Moore's University Art and Design Academy.

Fraguas, Antonio ‘Y la máquina empuñó el pincel,’  El Pais  (07/03/2011)

Grant, KatieManchester exhibition to commemorate work of ‘Huddersfield’s Picasso’ Desmond Paul Henry’, Huddersfield Examiner (28/02/2011)

Rawsthorn, Alice, ‘When Desmond Paul Henry Traded His Pen for a Machine’ International Herald Tribune/New York Times p.10 (27/02/2011)

Alice Rawsthorn’s strapline reads: “British teacher’s tinkering with computers in ‘60s heralded digital art”.

Henry cited in: Saville, Peter ‘Computer Art Pioneer’, Front Row BBC RADIO 4 (23/02/2011)

Walters, Sarah, ‘ Machine Artist is Finally Honoured’, Metro p.45 (15/02/2011)

Walters, Sarah, ‘Celebrating the City’s Mechanical Picasso’, in ‘City Life Arts’, The Manchester Evening News, p.14 (11/02/2011)

O’Hanrahan, Elaine; O’Hanrahan, Claire (eds.)(Feb. 2011) Desmond Paul Henry: Manchester Pioneer of Computer Art [Exh.Cat.] MOSI. Contributors: Balint Bolygo, Professor Paul Brown, Professor Jagjit Chuhan, Douglas Dodds, Michael Spalter, Dr. Jack Tait, Elaine O’Hanrahan



Henry cited in: Kinetica Art Fair [Exh. Cat.], Kinetica Museum (Feb.2010) p.48 (‘Kinetic Masters’ feature section). Daughter Elaine O’Hanrahan presented a talk on Henry’s career as a Computer Art pioneer.

Henry illustration in: Gemtronic (August 2010) Swarovsky Gems, p.11

Henry cited in: Kinetica Art Fair [Exh. Cat.], Kinetica Museum (Feb.2010) p.48 (‘Kinetic Masters’ feature section)


2007 was created in 2007 by Aly Sebastien of Redinko

O’Hanrahan, Elaine, (2007) ‘Desmond Paul Henry on Wikipedia



Henry cited in: Levy, David (2006) Robots Unlimited-Life in a Virtual Age, A.K.Peters, Wellesley, U.S.A, pp. 178-180.

O’Hanrahan, Elaine,(2005)Drawing Machines’: The Machine Produced Drawings of Dr. D.P. Henry in Relation to Conceptual and Technological Developments in Machine-Generated Art (UK 1960-68) (MPhil thesis, unpublished; John Moores University, Liverpool):



O’Hanrahan, Elaine (2004), ‘Desmond Paul Henry: How World War Two changed one man’s life for the better’, WW2 People’s War,BBC [online]



Henry cited in: Roberts, Emma (2001) ‘Intercultural Drawing Practice: the Art School Response’ in Chuhan, Jagjit (ed.) Responses: intercultural drawing practice, CAIR, LJMU, pp. 40-47.



Henry, D.P (1991) Medieval Mereology, B.R. Grüner Publishing Company.



Henry cited in: Mannings, David (1990), ‘Computer Art’. In  David Crystal (ed.) (1990), The Cambridge Encyclopaedia,Cambridge University press, Cambridge, p.289. Here Henry is accorded pioneer status.



Henry, D.P (1984) That Most Subtle Question (Quaestio Subtilissima): The Metaphysical Bearing of Medieval and Contemporary Linguistic Disciplines, Manchester University Press.



Henry, D.P (1977) Teaching and Study companion for use with ‘Philosophy in the Middle Ages’. Hyman and Walsh, Hackett.publications.



Henry, D.P (1974) Commentary on ‘De Grammatico’: The Historical-Logical Dimensions of a Dialogue of St. Anselm’s, Reidel.



Henry, D.P (1972) Medieval Logic and Metaphysics: A Modern Introduction, Hutchinson University Library.



Henry (1969) ’The End or the Beginning?’Solem, (Manchester Students’ Union magazine), pp. 25-27.
Henry illustration in: Databank (summer 1969), (Leasco House Magazine), Ted Hagan, Holland, p.2: Henry picture ‘Conversation’, 1962.



Henry (1968) ‘The Henry Drawing Computer’, Cybernetic Serendipity [Exh. Cat.], Studio International, London, p.50.



Henry, D.P (1967) The Logic of St. Anselm , The Clarendon Press, Oxford. (Reprinted by Gregg Revivals, Aldershot)



Henry (1964) ‘Art and Technology’, Bulletin of The Philosophy of Science Group, Newman Association, no.53.

‘Dr. Henry and his Painting Machine’ The Independent (03/11/64)

Henry, D.P (1964) The ‘De Grammatico’ of St. Anselm: The Theory of Paronymy, Notre Dame University Press.



Henry was interviewed by George Will (Sept. 1963) to be featured in the prestigious American LIFE magazine. The article was scrapped following the assassination of U.S President J. F. Kennedy.



‘Exhibition of Machine-Drawn Pictures’ The Easel (Autumn 1962) p.16-17

‘Computer Does Drawings- Thousands of Lines in each’ The Manchester Guardian (17/09/62)

Frenchman, Michael, ‘The Computer that Draws and Paints’ Time and Tide (13-20/09/62)

The BBC’s first programme in the “North at Six” series (Sept. 1962). Henry was interviewed and demonstrated his first drawing-machine.

Newton, Eric, ‘Ideographs at the Reid Gallery’ The Manchester Guardian (31/08/62).

‘Salford Fashions’ The Daily Telegraph (30/08/62)

‘Pictures by Robot Artist- enter Picasso of Machine Age’ The Manchester Evening News (30/08/62)

‘Doodling at 12 guineas a time’ The Daily Herald (30/08/62)

‘A Robot Draws the Doctor’s Pictures’ The Evening Herald (30/08/62)

Ideographs, [Exh. Cat.] The Reid Gallery, London (Aug-Sept 1962)



Partington, Dave, ‘The Raw Materials of Art’ The Independent (20/10/61)

‘A Philosopher beats 1,000 in art contest’ The Universe, (28/07/1961)

‘A Huddersfield Artist’s Success’The Yorkshire Post (26/07/1961)

‘Lecturer Wins One-Man Show Art Prize’ The Daily Telegraph (07/07/1961)

‘Triumph for a Doodler; London Showing as Art Prize’ The Manchester Guardian (July 1961)

Best of 1,000 pictures’ Manchester Evening News (July 1961)



Artists with a North Country Association, [Exh. Cat.] Manchester City Art Gallery (summer 1955)



‘400 students attend art festival in Leeds’ The Yorkshire Post (01/01/1949)
“ Noteworthy is a massive head by D.P. Henry, of Leeds University”



Oliver, W.T ‘Leeds University Art Exhibition: High-spirited works’ The Yorkshire Post (12/05/1948)

“D.P.Henry’s many exhibits show him to be prolific in experiment…….There is evidence of an alert and subtle mind in his best work.’ (Oliver, 1948)



‘University Art: virile exhibition in Leeds’ The Yorkshire Post (06/05/1947)
“But the outstanding contributions are undoubtedly the powerful allegory ‘Megapolitan Golgotha’ and other drawings by Desmond Paul Henry”.